It's time for our regular segment in which @Gafgarian (AKA Jeremiah Palmer) provides answers to the burning questions left unanswered in each episode of the Rooster Teeth Podcast. Read on to get closure for The Sax Machine Plays On – #458.
Scaramucci Poochie video?
The original Scaramucci Poochie video has actually been pulled from Jimmy Kimmel's official channel. Here is a reupload of the short clip, though.
Did Scaramucci give up his business?
Prior to beginning his 10-day tenure as the White House communications director, Scaramucci did sell his 43.8% share in SkyBridge Capital to HNA Group, a Chinese holding company. Analysts have estimated the value of this sale to be north of $50 million easily. Additionally, he resigned from his position as chief strategy officer and senior vice president at the Export-Import Bank on July 25th. The sale of his shares in SkyBridge were closed in January when Scaramucci stepped down as a managing partner in order to "take a different senior job with the Trump administration." Ultimately, Reince Priebus would successfully block this appointment for months until Scaramucci's July 21st appointment to the position following Spicer's removal. Priebus would be replaced shortly after by John Kelly, who would, as one of his first duties in the new role, remove Scaramucci from his coveted position.
Unfortunately for the Long Island born entrepreneur, he neglected to obtain a "certificate of divestiture" during his limited time with the Trump administration. This certificate allows federal employees who give up assets for reasons of potential conflicts of interest to be exempt from certain capital gains taxes and requirements. Without this certificate, Scaramucci will likely feel the full brunt of his share sale to HNA Group. This may end up being as much as $12 million owed.
How many Jews are in the world?
As of a 2016 census, there are around 14.4 million Jews in the world. Of that number, roughly 8 million live outside of Israel. A further study by the Diaspora Affairs Ministry states that greater than 80% of those 8 million have little to no involvement with their heritage.
What is off-limits with Whole30?
We went over this in a bit more detail previously but the quick answer is no added sugar or artificial sweeteners, alcohol, grains, legumes, or dairy. There are very few exceptions to these rules. In addition, the rules state that there is to be "no recreating baked goods, junk foods, or treats." In other words, you are not allowed to use a combination of "on-limits" food in order to create a reasonable facsimile of one of the off-limits items. This is because part of the goal is to cleanse the mind, as well as the body, from any attachments to specific foods, tastes, or cravings.
Can trumpet players inflate their cheeks at will?
There are a few things to be reviewed here. The first is that the common picture most get in their heads with regards to the "puffed cheeks" of a trumpet player is the below iconic gif (with a hard "g") of jazz legend Dizzy Gillespie.
The important takeaway from this obvious freak of nature is that he was obviously a freak of nature. It was originally thought that Gillespie seemed to slowly develop a condition known as laryngocele. This is an empty sac which sits along either side of a person's larynx. This sac's connection to the voice box allows it to expand with a pressure increase inside the mouth. This condition typically occurs naturally at birth due to genetic malformations. It was later discovered that, in Gillespie's case, it was the insane amount of incorrect trumpet playing which caused his cheeks and throat to deform. Ultimately, Gillespie was a prolific trumpet player because he was always playing the trumpet. Peers openly envied his stamina on stage as he was able to easily perform three hour concerts, often rolling one song right into another. This stamina in the live performance music industry was, and still is unheard of. Dizzy had built up his stamina by spending the majority of his waking hours with a trumped against his mouth.
It is now known that Gillespie actually had what is more commonly referred to as "Glassblower's disease." His commitment to practice and performance would eventually lead to this "disease" which is essentially the extreme elasticity of a person's cheeks. As can be guessed from the name, it is not uncommon among glassblowers who spend a significant portion of their career blowing with high pressure through a narrow metal pipe. This condition can, and is taught to, be prevented in trumpet players by being shown correct embouchure during initial training. An embouchure is simply the form in which a person puts their mouth to a brass or wind instrument. While there is some small debate about what makes a "perfect" embouchure and how much it impacts a player's sound, range, or general ability to play, most have agreed that having a consistent and practised embouchure will generally create a better sound and help to prevent cheeks like Gillespie. Part of this training is the idea that the puffing of a player's cheeks should be controlled and should avoid any real stretching against the elastic limits of the person's cheeks. It is known among jazz historians and trumpet players that Dizzy Gillespie had a relatively poor embouchure which was likely never corrected when he first started playing. This poor technique combined with his exceptionally long hours of constant playing and training would eventually lead his cheeks to be, arguably, more famous than his playing.
Pufferfish inflates with water?
Yes... sometimes. They are commonly known by many names, but the most scientifically accepted common nomenclature are the pufferfish and the porcupine fish, these fish are members of the slightly different Tetraodontidae and Diodontidae families, respectively, and have all evolved to protect themselves from predators by quickly increasing their size by as much as three times their normal size.
There are over 100 different species of pufferfish, with variations is diet, coloring, location, additional body attributes such as small spikes or ridges, and size. This latter trait actually has a pretty large range, with the smallest pufferfish, the dwarf pufferfish of Southwest India, measuring at less than inch and the largest, the stellate pufferfish, known to grow up to 47 inches in length. Both of these are before "puffing" and while the stellate fish is typically capable of relatively small expansion when compared to its smaller relatives, having a four foot long, 1.5 foot diameter fish, suddenly puff up to a three foot fish featured beach ball in front of you, would be quite the intimidating sight.
"Puffing" is something that they instinctively understand the mechanics of upon hatching and will practice by attempting to puff despite them being largely unable to accomplish a complete "puffing" prior to adulthood. These "mechanics" involve the forced unhinging of their jaw in order to suck in more water... or air if the fish is out of water. Yep, they DO puff up with air if they happen to be out of water, alive, and attempting to puff themselves up. Initially all of this water, or air, is stored in the mouth allowing for easy expulsion in the event that the potential threat immediately retreats. If that is not the case, millions of years of evolution allows the pufferfish to essentially block off his mouth by moving the valve that would normally block his esophagus forward. Afterward, the body contracts forcing the water, or air, down the esophagus and ultimately inflating the stomach up to three times larger. Deflating is much the same process in reverse, obviously, however, because of their muscle structure, their ability to expel water, or air, from their stomach is a slower process which is typically done in multiple steps as opposed to the singular step of the forced inflation.
It is important to point out that pufferfish are still fish and, while they have the ability to puff with air, they have not evolved to do so and it just happens to work because of their method of sucking in and swallowing water. This makes it very difficult for them to expel air in order to deflate and it is not uncommon for a puffer to swallow too much air during capture. The excess air can become trapped in the stomach which can, in many cases, lead to their death. With that in mind, @burnie is correct that puffers do, in nearly all cases, puff with water however they are capable, and have even survived, puffing with air instead.
Blobfish at depth?
Most of us know the blobfish from the unfortunate image on the bottom, which, I'll be honest, vaguely resembles my great-uncle Beep. This image, nicknamed Mr. Blobby, is of a 2003 specimen captured off the coast of New Zealand at a depth of over a kilometer. There are eleven known species of blobfishes, also known as fathead sculpins or psychrolutes, and all are typically found at extreme depths. Creatures living at these depths have evolved various biological and anatomical attributes in order to help them survive under immense the immense pressure. Some of these attributes include gas-filled swim bladders and, in the case of Mr. Blobby, malleable and spongy bones. It is these soft bones that cause Mr. Blobby at depth look like the fish in the top image because their jelly like bodies use water as their primary structural support. Unfortunately, this means that, when brought to the surface, Mr. Blobby collapses and becomes the jellied mass in the bottom picture.
Interestingly, my research also led me to find out that the majority of blobfish photos online are not actually blobfish and, in fact, are usually not even fish. Because of their rarity, most images of "blobfish" are actually silicone replicas of Mr. Blobby based on the popular image above and a plasticine model. Due to the captured detail of this original model, the photos taken of their silicone molds are easily mistaken as real blobfish and have spread a false narrative that all decompressed blobfish look just like Mr. Blobby. However, because of their very soft bone structure, blobfish that go through decompression tend to have very different looks based on their individual anatomical traits and other various factors that can shift their appearance greatly.
Nobel and dynamite?
Alfred Nobel would hold over 350 patents across varying fields, including electrochemistry, optics, biology, physiology, and of course engineering. While it was Italian chemist, Ascanio Sobrero, who invented nitroglycerin in 1846, it was Nobel who recognized the unfortunate volatility of the explosive was hindering its uses. In 1863, Nobel would patent a safer blasting cap for nitroglycerin detonation and, in 1866, dynamite was born. Nobel created dynamite by mixing nitroglycerin with silica into a far more stable paste. He would later fashion this paste into hardened thin cylinders in order to easily slip them into established bore holes during excavation.
This success came only a year after building the Alfred Nobel & Co. Factory near Hamburg, Germany and it was the mass marketing of Nobel's little controlled explosion stick which led to the construction of the United States Blasting Oil Company only a year later and the US patent on his invention would come the following year, in 1867. Nobel would go on to, as previously mentioned, invent several industry leading innovations including an improved blasting cap, or detonator, blasting gelatin, and smokeless blasting powder he referred to as ballistite. Ballistite, though not terribly successful in his industry would later be a key base in solid fuel propellant for rockets.
Nobel would spend the next 30 years refining and inventing new forms of explosives but it is clear from all accounts about this time that the international political world, namely the growing levels of destruction which the countries of the world were attempting to reach, weighed heavily on the Swedish industrialist. In 1876 he would meet with Austrian countess Bertha von Suttner who would have a profound impact on this world view. While she largely preached about forced peace and protested the growing military machine, Nobel dedicated the last ten years of his life to working directly within that machine. Using his factories and connections to design and further military technology in the advancement of cannon and rocket design as well as, of course, explosive powders. During their conversations on the topic, Nobel would relate to Suttner that "Perhaps my factories will put an end to war sooner than your congresses: on the day that two army corps can mutually annihilate each other in a second, all civilised nations will surely recoil with horror and disband their troops." Nobel did not live to see the unbridled mutually destructive military machine released upon the world in World War I though, in some ways, though controversially, his prediction did begin to materialize with the advent of atomic warfare with World War II.
Regardless, it was no doubt due to these conversations with Suttner that upon his death in 1896, the Nobel Prize foundation's creation at the direction of his will also included the Peace Prize. He stipulated that "the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses," should be awarded the Nobel Peace prize. Nobel prize categories are in the fields of physics, chemistry, literature, economics, medicine, and peace. While all Nobel prizes are awarded to highlight a significant act of progress and/or research in a topic which, as a whole, is seen to "better" mankind, perhaps none are inherently controversial as the last category. Some of the more controversial include the "fan-service-like" awarding of the prize to Barack Obama only nine months into his first term or the 1994 honoring of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat, whose award was as a result of Israeli peace talks which ultimately failed to broker any peace.
Another prolific scientist who may be one of the few people able to truly empathize with Nobel, Albert Einstein, said of Nobel's Peace prize, "Alfred Nobel invented an explosive more powerful than any then known – an exceedingly effective means of destruction. To atone for this 'accomplishment' and to relieve his conscience, he instituted his award for the promotion of peace." While this is obviously much conjecture, it is likely not far from the truth.
Did they wax Kit Harrington's ass for boat sex?
According to a recent interview with Jonathan Ross, Harrington claims to have a "naturally hairless bum." Jon Snow went on to say that, upon learning of his butt's cameo, he "did his homework" and performed "lots of squats" in preparation; however, no waxing was necessary.